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1. Leonardo da Vinci: Known as the ultimate Renaissance man, da Vinci was a painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and inventor. His inventions and designs were far ahead of his time and included concepts for flying machines, tanks, and even a self-propelled cart.
2. Thomas Edison: Often referred to as the Wizard of Menlo Park, Edison is credited with inventing the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the practical electric light bulb. He held over 1,000 patents in his lifetime.
3. Nikola Tesla: A Serbian-American inventor and electrical engineer, Tesla is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electrical supply system. His inventions also include the Tesla coil and wireless power transmission.
4. Marie Curie: A Polish-born physicist and chemist, Curie was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and remains the only person to have won Nobel Prizes in two different scientific fields (physics and chemistry). Her discoveries of radium and polonium paved the way for advancements in radiotherapy and nuclear medicine.
5. Steve Jobs: Co-founder of Apple Inc., Jobs revolutionized the personal computer industry with products like the Macintosh, iPod, iPhone, and iPad. His vision for user-friendly technology transformed multiple industries and made Apple one of the most valuable companies in the world.
6. Albert Einstein: A German-born theoretical physicist, Einstein is best known for his theory of relativity (E=mc²) which revolutionized our understanding of space, time, and gravity. His work laid the foundation for modern physics.
7. Alexander Graham Bell: A Scottish-born scientist and inventor, Bell is credited with inventing the telephone. His work in telecommunications also included advancements in sound recording and transmission.
8. Johannes Gutenberg: A German blacksmith and goldsmith, Gutenberg is best known for inventing the printing press with movable type. This invention revolutionized the spread of knowledge and played a key role in the Renaissance and Reformation.
9. Tim Berners-Lee: A British computer scientist, Berners-Lee is credited with inventing the World Wide Web. His creation of the first web browser and server paved the way for the internet as we know it today.
10. Henry Ford: An American industrialist and founder of Ford Motor Company, Ford revolutionized the automobile industry with the introduction of the assembly line production method. His innovations made cars more affordable and accessible to the masses.